In the past, state services were dominated by the ethnic groups in charge of the state (especially the security forces/services and the public service generally) a matter of great concern to the excluded communities. Members of minorities have had little prospects of holding senior positions.
Exclusion from public service affects a community seriously in other ways too—in terms of access to important information about government policies, and more importantly, being neglected in government plans and programmes.
The Constitution has various provisions about diversity and inclusion in public office and employment. Security services and commissions and independent offices are particularly required to reflect national diversity. Affirmative action—required by the Constitution—is intended to ensure that special efforts are made to compensate for past discrimination and disadvantage, including for members of minorities and the marginalised for whom there are to be special opportunities for employment. Affirmative action is not limited to the public sector.
The study first briefly outlines the conceptual, constitutional and legal requirement for inclusion and pluralism in state services before embarking on the main part of the study which is to determine the extent of inclusion and pluralism of state services at the national and at the county level 6 years since the promulgation of the Constitution. State services for the purposes of this chapter include state corporations, national government public service, Judiciary, security sector, county bureaucracy, and universities.